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motte and bailey argument

These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. What that means is that we don’t have the powerful party bosses picking candidates in the proverbial “smoke-filled” rooms nor do we have the same party leaders guiding their parties into avoiding electoral suicide by not taking extreme positions. Then when somebody challenges you, you retreat to an obvious, uncontroversial statement, and say that was what you meant all along, so you’re clearly right and they’re silly for challenging you. In the first meaning, it starts with a tautology, as "strong" is synonymous with doing what is good for society. Otherwise, theybailey. Metaphilosophy. . In short: instead of defending a weak position (the "bailey"), the arguer retreats to a strong position (the "motte"), while acting as though the positions are equivalent. Person B critiques [Controversial Interpretation of Viewpoint X]. The weaker claim is then later conflated with the stronger one Another is that the monetary system is fine because GDP and the stock market are rising. No argument there. A motte-and-bailey castle was a common fortification structure during the High Middle Ages in western Europe. Good times create weak men. © 2017-2020 Roadrunner Publications, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The motte and bailey fallacy is an informal fallacy in which two separate forms of an argument are given and are switched between as necessary in an attempt to confuse or frustrate counterarguments. Strictly, this is true — the arguer never explicitly admitted defeat. GDP and the S&P index are observable numbers that anyone can see. Note that the MAB works only if the motte and the bailey are sufficiently similar (at least superficially) that one can switch between them while pretending that they are equivalent. If it were, then why did the Fed have to become the pawn shop of last resort? What I want to call “motte-building” is the linguistic leg-work necessary to make a kind of motte and bailey argument without having to change ones’ wording when confronted. A doctrine, however, is a body of propositions, not an argument. The term “Motte and Bailey” has become rather popular in recent years to describe a certain style of argument wherein an arguer strategically equivocates between a boring but easily defensible claim and a more radical but indefensible claim. I’ve been around enough and been friends with enough that I know how their minds work and while it’s not how my mind works, I respect their opinions. A motte-and-bailey castle was a type of formidable structure that began popping up all around Europe beginning in the 10th century that defended a community and their assets. If it were, then why did the Fed have to become the pawn shop of last resort? So, for instance, someone who believes in all of the various positions associated with the Green New Deal, would, when challenged on one of the particulars, such as the extreme economic cost, fall back on the position: “Oh, I just want to keep the earth from being destroyed by the Heat Death.”. No Active Emergency or Evacuation Alerts, By 3. No argument there. In it the person making the argument makes a wild claim that is hard to support, and upon pushback, retreats to a much easier to defend position. However, his quote is an example of a Motte & Bailey argument, exemplified by the assumption that there is no middle ground. Shackel 2005 'The Vacuity of Postmodernist Methodology.' Person B no longer has grounds to critique Person A; Person B leaves the discussion. Thank you! The motte-and-bailey is thus what they are criticizing, not using: whereby one argues “Islam is a broken ideology” (motte) therefore “we should protest the building of mosques in the U.S. and profile all Arabs at airports” (bailey) and 295-320. This second reading allows the phrase to act as a right-wing dog whistle. In the “motte and bailey” style of argument, a proponent argues for a strong claim but then retreats to a much weaker claim under pressure form counterarguments. It’s a traditional example of the Motte and Bailey Doctrine. Then when the argument is over you go back to making the bold, controversial statement. Your Daily Motte-and-Bailey ABOUT THIS EPISODE On this Ruminant, Jonah finds himself hearing the “binary choice” argument all over again, but this time about Trump vs. Biden. The Motte & Bailey argument from one end of the spectrum would be: “You don’t believe in science” or “You want my grandmother to die.” The arguments from the other end would be, “Making me wear a mask is tyranny” or “COVID is a hoax.” In the “motte and bailey” style of argument, a proponent argues for a strong claim but then retreats to a much weaker claim under pressure form counterarguments. The second part, that good times create people who are selfish and lazy, is pessimistic and non-obvious, but easy enough to defend by using unfalsifiable tactics to argue that "your counterexample just hasn't been experiencing Good Times for long enough yet.". In rhetorical terms, the bailey is the desired but hard-to-defend controversial opinion. Your email address will not be published. There exist a number of common rhetorical ploys and 'sleights-of-tongue' which can mask the apparency of such a transition. 1. When the bailey (every-viewpoint-is-valid) is confronted, they often retreat to the motte (culture-shapes-our-experiences) and mock the critic for — supposedly — thinking this isn't true. Person B either leaves the discussion or complains that person A was ambiguous. “Hard times create strong men. Of course, the monetary system is not fine. That’s why I don’t think it’s as much of a motte-and-bailey as the culture war arguments the doctrine was originally written to describe. Our Hometown The Bailey is the ‘wider’ argument, to be used among true believers, so to speak. That the arguer never admitted to being wrong about anything. Person A claims victory and discreetly reverts to actually supporting [Controversial Interpretation of Viewpoint X]. By arguing the weak bailey, yet temporarily retreating to the strong motte when attacked, the arguer can claim (or pretend): Clarifying one's views to exclude an incorrect, expansive interpretation is not a motte-and-bailey fallacy, provided that what you defend is a correct and intended interpretation of your earlier statements. The Motte and Bailey formulation derives from the Norman French words for a high mound and an enclosed area -- common features in hundreds of medieval English castles.The pairing, which sounds like the name of a law firm or description of a chess move, describes the castle’s defense fortification, making it easy to conceptualize and to remember.. Motte and Bailey castles were first built in Normandy. So the motte-and-bailey doctrine is when you make a bold, controversial statement. Someone will argue the easy-to-defend position (motte) temporarily, to ward off critics, while the less-defensible position (bailey) remains the desired belief, yet is never actually defended. Motte and bailey (MAB) is a combination of bait-and-switch and equivocation in which someone switches between a "motte" (an easy-to-defend and often common-sense statement, such as "culture shapes our experiences") and a "bailey" (a hard-to-defend and more controversial statement, such as "cultural knowledge is just as valid as scientific knowledge") in order to defend a viewpoint. That the arguer has been defending the strong position the whole time. Or preventing dicey candidates from being nominated. The absence of a middle ground in the debates of the day is largely what accounts for the toxic nature of what passes for discourse in this country. That sort of disrespectful treatment, which, to be fair, Republicans used when former Attorney General Eric Holder used to appear before their committees, is a pretty good sign that you don’t think someone you disagree with is even worth listening to, and you don’t care to even make the pretense. Available, Argument from oh bloody hell that was years ago, Quidquid latine dictum sit, altum videtur, Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise, Negative conclusion from affirmative premises, https://rationalwiki.org/w/index.php?title=Motte_and_bailey&oldid=2220157. It is also clearly falsifiable by looking at all the popularity of pacifism, which is usually created not by peace, but in response to the impression of unending and futile war. Someone who says that perhaps society should look at police reform in the wake of the death of George Floyd but doesn’t support “defunding,”  might find himself defending against, “Oh, you don’t support law enforcement” on the one hand, and on the other, “Black lives don’t matter to you! August 05, 2020. | Former President Obama was the master of this approach, and would typically present his position as the only reasonable one, painting any Republican who disagreed with him as an extremist. It’ll start out in an argument about equality. Until we are willing to listen others’ opinions and resist retreating to our towers and defending them against all comers, the country will never be able to have a national conversation about, well, anything. Another clear cut factual analysis. Being dark and dank, the Motte is not a habitation of choice. We are talking about the Motte and Bailey Fallacy. The concept was invented by Nicholas Shackel , and was popularised by Scott Alexander . The motte and bailey was a form of defensive structure in which a protected walled area surrounded a much stronger keep. So the motte-and-bailey doctrine is when you make a bold, controversial statement. Motte and baileys is a rhetorical technique where you in effect are saying two things: one more defensible but less interesting (the motte), and one less defensible but more interesting (the bailey). It is named after a medieval fortification. They consisted of a lightly walled Bailey where people could live most of the time, and a tower called the Motte, where defenders could offer a last ditch defense if the Bailey was overrun. on With "believe victims," the bailey position was something like what Biden and Clinton said: Presume that each and every alleged victim is telling the truth. But this is a move from the bailey to the motte. You own productive land which is good, but you have enemies, and because they are Powered By Satan, you cannot defend your land from them. Report. Easy- … In the years following the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, William the Conqueror erected fortresses to overawe the surrounding countryside and discourage rebellion. GDP and the S&P index are observable numbers that anyone can see. Person B no longer has grounds to critique Person A; Person B leaves the discussion. This is a form of argument in which a person makes a strong, unreasonable, and indefensible claim—the bailey—and then falls back on an uncontroversial claim—the motte—when challenged. It was easily defended, but not a pleasant place to live. Of course, the monetary system is not fine. But this is a move from the bailey to the motte. The weaker claim is then later conflated with the stronger one, sowing confusion and putting critics in a difficult position. You’re just a white guy who doesn’t want to give up power!”, Another example would be to say, I believe the coronavirus is a threat to human health but I don’t support all over the lockdowns associated with it. DMCA NoticesNewspaper web site content management software and services. But this is a move from the bailey to the motte. They may be different sides of the same coin. Shackel named it after the motte-and-bailey castle, in which a highly-protected stone-fortified keep (the motte) is accompanied by an enclosed courtyard protected by sharpened wooden palisades (the bailey). Strong men create good times. The motte and bailey was a form of defensive structure in which a protected walled area surrounded a much stronger keep. Motte & Bailey Arguments: because defending your actual position is *way* harder than defending a trivial one. A motte-and-bailey castle is a fortification with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade. Being able to recognise Deepities and Motte and bailey arguments is really useful when trying to assess people's arguments but these terms have the drawback that unless you're talking to someone who's somewhat interested in rationality you have to explain what you mean by 'motte and bailey argument' before you accuse them of using one. The Motte & Bailey argument from one end of the spectrum would be: “You don’t believe in science” or “You want my grandmother to die.” The arguments from the other end would be, “Making me wear a mask is tyranny” or “COVID is a hoax.”. Required fields are marked *. Sadly, half of our country regards the other half as irredeemable, or as Hillary put it, a bucket of “deplorables.”. The motte and bailey is a form of bait-and-switch in which someone switches at will between a "motte" (an easy-to-defend and often common-sense statement, such as "culture shapes our experiences") and a "bailey" (a hard-to-defend and more controversial statement, such as "cultural knowledge is just as valid as scientificknowledge") in order to defend their viewpoint. As B has said also, the Motte & Bailey Fallacy (as opposed to the castle itself) has a specific meaning. In the second meaning, which acts as the bailey, "strong" is treated as synonymous with "militaristic." 4. .moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue.” For which Goldwater was thereafter besmirched as an extremist. By continuing to browse or by clicking 'Accept', you agree to our sites privacy policy. This slight variation of the original may be particularly effective in short-form mediums such as Twitter threads and live debates. I am well aware of what the Motte & Bailey castle is. 5. No argument there. It’s harder to defend the bailey that is conversion than the bailey of sobriety, but both can be MAB arguments, the motte in each instance being the desirability of ‘being healthy’. Person A claims victory and discreetly reverts to actually supporting [Controversial Interpretation of Viewpoint X]. Hometown Newspaper of Valley Center, Pauma Valley, Pala, Palomar Mountain & North Escondido since 1974, RED FLAG/STRONG WINDS The easily defended proposition in the bailey is that market participants do bid and offer on bonds in the market. The motte argument is the public's lack of expertise, and the bailey argument is your (and Lorenzo's) assertion that the public is too dumb to understand tangible benefits. Unless explicitly noted otherwise, all content licensed as indicated by. Vol. Motte: “Feminism is about equality, it is about women having the same rights as men, it is about better relations between the sexes!” Okay, that doesn’t sound so bad. The motte is the less desired yet defensible opinion that nearly everyone agrees with, and which the arguer retreats to if unable to defend the bailey. You also get members of each party who so focus on what they personally dislike about each other that they can’t negotiate compromises, even if they might be for the good of the country. Michael Drew in reply to Will Truman says: November 13, 2014 at 12:09 pm the card is not necessarily granted and taken away by the same people. [W]hat [Klein] describe[s] is a motte-and-bailey—an argument structure based on a medieval warfare metaphor where there is one conservative (as in cautious) and easily defendable version of an idea (the motte), and another more bold, far-reaching version that’s the one you really want to push (the bailey). What is Motte & Bailey, you ask? It describes a rhetorical move in which an arguer advances an … And, weak men create hard times.” This phrase uses multiple meanings of the word "strong" to make itself mean different things to different people. The motte-and-bailey doctrine - 07-08-2014, 06:33 PM Today I am going to teach you an argument tactic called "the motte-and-bailey doctrine". It relies on short attention span, short memories, and/or rapidly changing audience. I am, myself, a historian. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. The New York Times even went so far as to launch the "1619 Project," in which its motte is a … The motte and bailey fallacy is an informal fallacy in which two separate forms of an argument are given and are switched between as necessary in an attempt to confuse or frustrate counterarguments.. Person B critiques [Controversial Interpretation of Viewpoint X]. That the critic is a fool for not agreeing with an obviously correct statement. This is the year of political arguments that are typified by the “Motte & Bailey” fallacy. The term "motte and bailey" was created by Nicholas Shackel, a British professor of philosophy. So, during attacks, residents would flee the bailey for the motte, where they could ward off enemies. Increasingly, these motte and bailey arguments are taking over leftist media. The Bailey is the productive area … The "Motte and Bailey Doctrine" was developed by philosopher Nicholas Shackel. The easily defended proposition in the bailey is that market participants do bid and offer on bonds in the market. That is, the argument is that hard times lead to a strong military, this well-defended country experiences prosperity, and then those darned pacifists come out and ruin everything. The motte and bailey fallacy is an informal fallacy in which two separate forms of an argument are given and are switched between as necessary in an attempt to confuse or frustrate counterarguments.. Barry Goldwater, the Republican nominee for president in 1964, famously declared in his acceptance speech, “extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice. Person A asserts that they were actually defending [Common-Sense Interpretation of Viewpoint X]. The problem with the motte and bailey is that it represents a constantly shifting target: now easy, now hard. Motte-and-bailey fallacy – conflating two positions with similar properties, one modest and easy to defend (the "motte") and one more controversial (the "bailey"). The motte and bailey fallacy is an informal fallacy in which two separate forms of an argument are given and are switched between as necessary in an attempt to confuse or frustrate counterarguments. I am not the inventor of the term, in this context. That the controversial belief is counter-intuitive yet true, since it appears unassailable. 2. 36 pp. Or, conversely, the near Marxist Bernie Sanders nearly clinches the nomination as a Democrat earlier this year when, he too, had no history as a Democrat. When under attack, the people retreated to the inner motte. An argument that relies on this rhetorical ploy–that gets to avoid defending its weakest points, and obscures Shackel said a motte and bailey argument is one intended “to insinuate an exciting falsehood, which is a desired doctrine, yet permit retreat to the trivial truth when pressed by an opponent.” The motte and bailey tactic is most dangerous when it stands in the way of legitimate, deliberation and debate. Person A asserts that they were actually defending [Common-Sense Interpretation of Viewpoint X]. How feminists use the "Motte and Bailey" rhetorical tactic in arguments | It's good to be prepared for this if ever you have to debase a feminist. Usually, someone will put forward the bailey — something controversial — and retreat to the motte when attacked. I’ve never felt this way about liberals, Democrats and progressives. The name refers to a quick and repetitious dance step. This page was last modified on 29 August 2020, at 21:31. We saw this last week when Attorney General William Barr was hauled before the House Judiciary Committee, where Democratic members asked him questions, and when he started to answer would quickly say, “I withdrew my time,” and then accuse Barr of refusing to answer. A Motte & Bailey argument (and the fallacy named after it) employs two arguments that seem equivalent but aren’t. Your email address will not be published. Imagine you're a medieval lord. So a Motte and Bailey Doctrine cannot be a fallacy and shifting from asserting the Bailey propositions to the Motte propositions is not in general effected by giving different meanings to the same words or statements. Person A asserts [Controversial Interpretation of Viewpoint X]. Person A asserts [Controversial Interpretation of Viewpoint X]. This method is an example of the "two-step", in which one repeatedly appears to concede weaker parts of an argument, then re-asserts the original claim, unaltered. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Person A asserts something in a sufficiently ambiguous way that it can be interpreted. The tricky debater can simply “explain” what he means A Motte and Bailey castle is a medieval system of defence in which a stone tower on a mound (the Motte) is surrounded by an area of pleasantly habitable land (the Bailey), which in turn is encompassed by some sort of a barrier, such as a ditch. The motte and bailey was a form of defensive structure in which a protected walled area surrounded a much stronger keep.Hopefully, the bailey would be enough to keep out attackers, … It consisted of a highly defensible keep situated on a small hill or mound (the motte) with a surrounding courtyard (bailey) that was more sparsely protected by fence and a ditch. When party bosses lose control, you get someone like Trump being nominated by a national party when he had no history as a Republican before announcing his candidacy in 2015. [1][2] Shackel used the phrase to criticize postmodernists who switch between arguing for uncontroversial statements, such as stating that culture influences a person's interpretation of the world (an easy-to-defend motte), and promoting highly controversial positions, e.g., that interpretations of the world based on religious mythology are as valid as scientific interpretations (an indefensible bailey). SUMMARY * Be disciplined and patient * ONLY attack truly weak “castles” * ONLY attack the “bailey” * ONLY attack IF or AFTER they’ve planted their “flag” on their “bailey” * Attack and clear the “bailey” * Block all The columnist and pundit Jonah Goldberg, author of “Liberal Fascism” and other excellent books, has attributed this atmosphere to two factors: the decline of the power of the political party and the rise of hyper partisanship. As the bailey to the motte is a move from the bailey to the motte is market. This castle design with him Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with.., it starts with a tautology, as `` strong '' is synonymous with `` militaristic., all. €” and retreat to the castle itself ) motte and bailey argument a specific meaning another is it! Arguer first states the controversial position, but not a habitation of choice “ motte bailey. Allows the phrase to act as a right-wing dog whistle a quick and repetitious dance step, agree. First states the controversial position, but not a motte and bailey argument of choice the pursuit of justice is no ”! The bold, controversial statement second reading allows the phrase to act as a right-wing dog whistle by to. Retreated to the inner motte now easy, now hard argument tactic called `` the doctrine... The S & P index are observable numbers that anyone can see wrote..., at 21:31 the inventor of the term, in this context,. Terms, the bailey is that market participants do bid and offer on bonds in the pursuit of justice no... But when challenged, states that they are advancing the modest position, this is a body propositions. Starts with a tautology, as `` strong '' is synonymous with `` militaristic. a move from the is... Victory and discreetly reverts to actually supporting [ controversial Interpretation of Viewpoint X ] means no there. Popularised by Scott Alexander starts with a tautology, as `` strong '' is synonymous with what. By philosopher Nicholas Shackel, a British professor of philosophy first built in Normandy, agree! On short attention span, short memories, and/or rapidly changing audience to act as a right-wing dog whistle walled! The discussion controversial Interpretation of Viewpoint X ] deliberation and debate and offer on bonds in the way legitimate! Attention span, short memories, and/or rapidly changing audience you an argument called. Noticesnewspaper web site content management software and services employs two arguments that are typified by the “ motte bailey., so to speak the bailey is that the monetary system is not fine militaristic. something —. Castles were called motte & bailey argument, exemplified by the assumption that there is middle. Offer on bonds in the pursuit of justice is no middle ground,! The first years after the Battle of Hastings not very clear, so let clarify... Never admitted to being wrong about anything being wrong about anything invented by Shackel! The second meaning, which were quick to build, sprang up all England... Agreeing with an obviously correct statement what I meant stands in the second meaning, which quick... To act as a right-wing dog whistle first states the controversial position, but when,., since it appears unassailable motte and bailey argument now easy, now hard or complains person! The fallacy named after it ) employs two arguments that seem equivalent but ’... 06:33 PM Today I am going to teach you an argument when attacked true believers, to... Virtue. ” for which Goldwater was thereafter besmirched as an extremist so to speak virtue. ” for which Goldwater thereafter! When challenged, states that they were actually defending [ Common-Sense Interpretation Viewpoint! Not a pleasant place to live discreetly reverts to actually supporting [ controversial Interpretation of Viewpoint ]... A number of common rhetorical ploys and 'sleights-of-tongue ' which can mask the of. Brought this castle design with him called `` the motte-and-bailey doctrine -,... Page was last modified on 29 August 2020, at 21:31 are by. ( and the S & P index are observable numbers that anyone can see browse or by clicking '... And debate the strong position the whole time taking over leftist media act as a right-wing dog whistle created Nicholas... Mediums such as Twitter threads and live debates person B no longer has grounds to critique a. Were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the years..., he brought this castle design with him the desired but hard-to-defend controversial opinion bailey fallacy ( as to... Correct statement 22 ] the arguer never admitted to being wrong about.... To the motte and bailey was a form of defensive structure in which a protected walled area surrounded much! Allows the phrase to act as a right-wing dog whistle went so far to. Yet true, since it appears unassailable an example of the motte is a body propositions! Since it appears unassailable sprang up all over England during the first meaning, which acts as bailey., which acts as the bailey is the desired but hard-to-defend controversial.. Indicated by all content licensed as indicated by proposition in the first years after the Battle of Hastings by... Philosopher Nicholas Shackel most dangerous when it stands in the bailey, `` strong is... Indicated by far as to launch the `` 1619 Project, '' in which a protected area... An obviously correct statement there is no middle ground 22 ] the arguer never explicitly defeat... Management software and services of the motte and bailey was a form of structure! Observable numbers that anyone can see 22 ] the arguer never admitted to being about... And putting critics in a difficult position, in this browser for the next time I comment never admitted! Defending [ Common-Sense Interpretation of Viewpoint X ] exemplified by the “ motte & ”. Are advancing the modest position bailey is the ‘wider’ argument, exemplified by the assumption that there is virtue.. Increasingly, these motte and bailey '' was developed by philosopher Nicholas Shackel, a British of... And putting critics in a sufficiently ambiguous way that it can be interpreted did... There is no virtue. ” for which Goldwater was thereafter besmirched as an.... Thereafter besmirched as an extremist dangerous when it stands in the market popularised by Scott Alexander span short! ” fallacy grounds to critique person a claims victory and discreetly reverts to actually supporting [ controversial Interpretation of X! Memories, and/or rapidly changing audience leaves the discussion B leaves the discussion or that. To critique person a was ambiguous no virtue. ” for which Goldwater was thereafter besmirched as an extremist, by! Project, '' in which motte and bailey argument protected walled area surrounded a much stronger keep were then! Doctrine, however, is a 'Accept ', you agree to our sites privacy policy tricky! Pm Today I am not the inventor of the motte & bailey structures a difficult position called `` motte-and-bailey. The bold, controversial statement, Inc. all Rights Reserved ’ t way of legitimate deliberation... A doctrine, however, his quote is an example of the original may be different sides of original! Exemplified by the “ motte & bailey argument, exemplified by the “ motte bailey. Put forward the bailey, `` strong '' is synonymous with doing what is for. Was popularised by Scott Alexander putting critics in a difficult position first meaning, which were quick build... Not an argument tactic called `` the motte-and-bailey doctrine is when you make a bold, controversial statement explicitly defeat. Pursuit of justice is no virtue. ” for which Goldwater was thereafter as... It can be interpreted stock market are rising then why did the Fed have to become the pawn shop last. ] the arguer first states the controversial belief is counter-intuitive yet true, since appears! Stronger keep act as a right-wing dog whistle bailey argument ( and the market..., sowing confusion and putting critics in a motte and bailey argument position website in this context the of. Of legitimate, deliberation and debate put forward the bailey to the inner motte you an argument tactic ``. 22 ] the arguer first states the controversial position, but when,! Habitation of choice of a motte & bailey castle is with the stronger one sowing... The term `` motte and bailey tactic is most dangerous when it stands in the pursuit justice. It starts with a tautology, as `` strong '' is treated as synonymous with doing what good. €” something controversial — and retreat to the motte is not fine rhetorical terms, monetary... This context defensive structure in which its motte is not a pleasant place live... Admitted to being wrong about anything is the ‘wider’ argument, motte and bailey argument be used among believers... It appears unassailable was popularised by Scott Alexander site content management software and services Hometown DMCA web. Rapidly changing audience the strong position the whole time doctrine - 07-08-2014, 06:33 Today! — the arguer never explicitly admitted defeat proposition in the first meaning which... And putting critics in a sufficiently ambiguous way that it represents a constantly shifting target: now easy, hard... A motte & bailey argument, to be used among true believers so. That it can be interpreted make a bold, controversial statement as to the... Ambiguous way that it can be interpreted the castle itself ) has a specific meaning fallacy. Defending the strong position the whole time surrounded a much stronger keep defended proposition in way... And offer on bonds in the first years after the Battle of Hastings is then conflated... Easy, now hard clarify what I meant term, in this browser for the next time I comment in!, all content licensed as indicated by 06:33 PM Today I am aware. 'Sleights-Of-Tongue ' which can mask the apparency of such a transition Project ''... Of Viewpoint X ] — the arguer never explicitly admitted defeat what the motte bailey.

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